Study of the clinical pattern of contact dermatitis over the face and its correlation with patch testing
Keywords:Contact dermatitis, Face, Patch test
Background: Contact dermatitis (CD) is an altered state of reactivity; occur due to direct contact with noxious agents in our environment. Face is a very common site for CD.
Methods: Prospective hospital based study was conducted at A. J. Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore from June 2018 to November 2018. Fifty cases aged above 18 years with suspected allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) over face who gave written informed consent were enrolled. A complete history was taken and detailed clinical examination was done. Patch testing was done over the back in all patients which was removed after 48 hours and positive result was recorded based on the recommendation of the international Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG).
Results: The most common clinical pattern observed was pigmented contact dermatitis(PCD) (70%), followed by irritation (6%), acneiform eruptions (5%) and contact urticaria (2%). Out of 50 patients, 20 patients developed CD to fragrances and perfumes. 14 patients developed to soaps and shampoos. On patch testing, most common allergen in fragrances/perfumes was fragrance mix (52.9%). In soaps and shampoos it was triclosan (68.4%), parabens (31.5%). Sesquiterpene lactone in parthenium plant (4%), Paraphenylenediamine in hair dye (8%). In face creams were gallate mix and cetrimide among metals, nickel and chromium (6%). In case of kumkum it was paraphenylenediamine (4%).
Conclusions: Amongst the various patterns of contact dermatitis, PCD to cosmetics, fragrances and daily care products was most common pattern observed and the main allergens were triclosan, fragrance mix and balsum of Peru.
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