International Journal of Research in Dermatology <p>International Journal of Research in Dermatology is an open access, international, peer-reviewed journal that publishes new and significant research in dermatology. The journal's full text is available online at The journal allows free access to its contents. The journal aims to provide a platform for the exchange of information about all areas of dermatology and to promote the discipline of dermatology throughout the world. International Journal of Research in Dermatology is one of the fastest communication journals and articles are published online within short time after acceptance of manuscripts. The types of articles accepted include original research articles, review articles, analytic reviews such as meta-analyses, insightful editorials, medical news, case reports, short communications, correspondence, images in medical practice, clinical problem solving, perspectives and new techniques. It is published every two months and available in print and online version. International Journal of Research in Dermatology complies with the uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals, issued by the International Committee for Medical Journal Editors.</p> <p><strong>Issues: 6 per year</strong></p> <p><strong>Email: </strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p><strong>Publisher:</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Medip Academy</strong></a></p> <p><strong>DOI prefix: 10.18203</strong></p> <p>Medip Academy is a member of Publishers International Linking Association, Inc. (PILA), which operates <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CrossRef (DOI)</a></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Manuscript Submission</strong></p> <p>International Journal of Research in Dermatology accepts manuscript submissions through <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Online Submissions</a>:</p> <p>About the Journal &gt; <a title="Online Submissions" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Online Submissions</a></p> <p>Registration and login are required to submit items online and to check the status of current submissions.</p> <p>Please check out the video on our YouTube Channel:</p> <p>Steps to register and submit a manuscript:<br /><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>Problem Logging In-Clear cookies:<br /><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>If you find any difficulty in online submission of your manuscript, please contact editor at <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Abbreviation</strong></p> <p>The correct abbreviation for abstracting and indexing purposes is Int J Res Dermatol.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Abstracting and Indexing information</strong></p> <p>The journal is indexed with</p> <p><strong><a href=";journalId=44184" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Index Copernicus</a>,</strong> </p> <p><strong><a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scilit (MDPI)</a>,</strong></p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CrossRef</a>, </p> <p><a title=";referer=brief_results" href=";referer=brief_results" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OCLC (WorldCat),</a></p> <p><a title="LOCKSS" href="http://localhost/index.php/ijord/gateway/lockss" target="_blank" rel="noopener">LOCKSS</a>, </p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a>,</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ICMJE</a>, </p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">J-Gate</a>, </p> <p><a title=";subAction=pub&amp;publisherID=3072&amp;journalID=37624&amp;pageb=1&amp;userQueryID=66977&amp;sort=&amp;local_page=1&amp;sorType=&amp;sorCol=1" href=";subAction=pub&amp;publisherID=3072&amp;journalID=37624&amp;pageb=1&amp;userQueryID=66977&amp;sort=&amp;local_page=1&amp;sorType=&amp;sorCol=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>JournalTOCs,</strong></a></p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ResearchBib</a>.</p> Medip Academy en-US International Journal of Research in Dermatology 2455-4529 Screening of diabetes mellitus in patients at risk in dermatology outpatient department <p><strong>Background:</strong> Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a widely spread multidisciplinary condition that requires the attention of many different disciplines; yet, the involvement of dermatologists in this regard has not been recognized. The current study focused on the role of dermatologists in screening the prevalence and pattern of cutaneous manifestations in diabetic and pre-diabetic patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A randomized study was carried out from April 2023 to October 2023 in the department of dermatology at SSB Heart and Multispecialty Hospital in Faridabad, Haryana. In the current study, patients with dermatological problems suspected of diabetes mellitus were enrolled. Dermatological problems such acanthosis nigricans, dermatophyte infections, psoriasis, endogenous eczema, chronic urticaria, generalized pruritus, lichen simplex chronicus, patients older than 40, and coexisting conditions like obesity were focused in this study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> This study enrolled a total of 100 patients. Only 37 patients were recognized as having a high risk of diabetes, with 67.57% having a verified history of the disease. Furthermore, 32% of T2DM patients were examined for specific skin symptoms during their initial visits, with 4 individuals being found to have generalized pruritus and dermatophyte infection.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study finally concluded that dermatologists may play a crucial role in fighting the T2DM epidemic by early detection of T2DM and treatment initiation which may reduce the risk of serious complications.</p> Kanishka Kaul Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Research in Dermatology 2024-04-24 2024-04-24 10 3 117 120 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20240968 Expert opinion on the prescription practice of topical calamine lotion for chronic urticaria and other dermatologic conditions in Indian clinical settings <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>: </strong>Calamine is suggested as a potentially effective treatment for skin exudation, itching, and rashes. However, there aren't many thorough analyses of the drug prescription patterns for treating urticaria in the Indian literature. This study aimed to gather expert opinions on the prescription practice of topical calamine lotion for chronic urticaria and other dermatologic conditions in Indian clinical settings.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey, comprising 25 questions, gathered data regarding the prescription practice of topical calamine lotion for the management of chronic urticaria and other dermatological conditions.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of the 467 participants, 62% indicated that they would prescribe topical calamine lotion for pruritus management. About 39% of the participants preferred the cream formulation of the calamine lotion for treating diaper dermatitis in 11-25% of patients. About 76% of the respondents stated that they would recommend an oral antihistamine along with topical calamine lotion to treat chronic urticaria. For the treatment of pruritus, 44% of the participants preferred menthol in addition to calamine. Sixty-eight per cent of the respondents stated that approximately 5% of those with chronic urticaria need to be treated with calamine and tetrahydrocurcumin. Most specialists (69.38%) preferred using calamine lotion on 5-10% of patients with itchy skin conditions during pregnancy.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Experts recommend the topical calamine lotion for managing various skin conditions including pruritus and chronic urticaria. Specialists recommended it as a safe option for managing itchy skin conditions during pregnancy.</p> Manjula S. Krishna Kumar M. Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Research in Dermatology 2024-04-24 2024-04-24 10 3 121 125 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20240969 A comparison of the effectiveness of intralesional tranexamic acid against platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of melasma <p><strong>Background: </strong>Melasma, derived from the Greek word "melas" meaning "black", manifests as an acquired, more or less symmetrical hypermelanosis of sun-exposed skin. This study aimed to compare and evaluate the efficacy and safety of intradermal injection of tranexamic acid and platelet-rich plasma in treating various types of melasma.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Conducted from June 2022 to December 2023 at the outpatient department of dermatology, Sri Lakshmi Narayana institute of medical sciences, Puducherry, this split-face prospective study involved 40 melasma cases. Tranexamic acid (4 mg/ml) was intradermally injected into the right side of the face, while PRP was injected into the left side. Improvement was assessed using the modified Melasma area severity index (MASI) grading system and dermoscopy, measuring disease severity and percentage of improvement before and after therapy on both sides of the face.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The study comprised predominantly females (80%) aged 20 to 30 years (50%), followed by those aged 30 to 40 years (35%). Most cases (93%) exhibited a gradual onset, with centrofacial (52.5%) and malar (37.5%) patterns being predominant. Mixed pattern (67.5%) was common. Pre-treatment mean MASI scores for tranexamic acid and PRP sides were 7.54 and 6.92, respectively, with post-treatment scores of 4.6 and 2.83, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Intradermal PRP demonstrated significantly superior efficacy over intradermal tranexamic acid in managing melasma, particularly in the longer term. Thus, PRP, coupled with good compliance, may substantially reduce the disease burden compared to conventional tranexamic acid treatment.</p> Manasha Karthikeyan Govardhan Jagadeesh Kumar Indradevi Radhakrishnan Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Research in Dermatology 2024-04-24 2024-04-24 10 3 126 131 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20240970 Symmetrical acrokeratoderma: a case series <p>Symmetrical acrokeratoderma is rare keratinization disorder which is characterized by symmetrical acral brown to black hyperpigmented keratotic plaques. In this case series, all three patients presented with asymptomatic symmetrical thick raised dark brown skin lesions with rough surface on flexural surface of wrists and dorsum of hands and feet. Palms and soles were spared in all three patients. White maceration and swelling of skin lesions were noticed after soaking in water. All Patients showed good response to oral acitretin and patients were asked for regular follow up every 4 weekly.</p> Swale iftikhar Anil Kumar Gupta Rajkumar Urjasweta Singh Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Research in Dermatology 2024-04-24 2024-04-24 10 3 132 137 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20240971 Expert dialogue on topical minocycline gel in acne vulgaris: minologue India <p>Acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder with a global prevalence of about 9.4%. Oral antibacterials are recommended but they are associated with potential systemic side effects. Topical minocycline 4% has been recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA) for the management of moderate to severe acne. Although efficacy and safety are established, little is known of its real word usage. To review and appraise existing literature and make recommendations on the real world usage and positioning of topical minocycline 4% in acne management. The minocycline 4% consensus was developed by nine acne experts and was evidence-based on a review of recent topical minocycline 4% literature. A total of 11 questions were discussed regarding different domains like positioning of topical minocycline in acne management as monotherapy and combination therapy, safety and use in special population. Several recommendations were given regarding topical minocycline use like: no monotherapy use; consider use in combination with other anti-acne treatments like isotretinoin, adapalene and benzoyl peroxide; not recommended to be combined with systemic antibiotics; low chances for hyperpigmentation; use of sun protection measures; consider risk benefit ratio in pregnancy; use in lactation not recommended; and can be used only in children &gt;9 years of age. This consensus has discussed and answered many real world usage questions and place in therapy for topical minocycline in acne management and finds it a useful addition to the existing armamentarium.</p> Malavika Kohli Prabhakar Sangolli Sanjeev Aurangabadkar Rajetha Damisetty D. A. Satish Shrichand G. Parasramani Anil Ganjoo Deepak Jakhar Anand Nott Miti Gandhi Dhiraj Dhoot Kruttika Chitnis Hanmant Barkate Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Research in Dermatology 2024-03-16 2024-03-16 10 3 157 164 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20240685 Anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome with skin as a primary involved organ: an interesting case report <p>Anti-phospholipid antibody (APLA) syndrome is a multisystem vascular thrombopathy characterized by presence of antibodies against phospholipid antigens. Resulting thrombosis due to these antibodies leads to hallmark obstetric complications, cutaneous and cerebral vascular involvement, pulmonary embolism and thrombosis which can occur in vasculature of any organ system of body. Though APLA syndrome is characterized by pregnancy loss and foetal morbidity, isolated cutaneous or other system presentation has been reported especially in male patients. Here we present an interesting case report of an old aged male patient presenting with cutaneous ulcers and skin involvement as presenting feature.</p> Aum N. Soni Harshad V. Parmar Hinal J. Prajapati Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Research in Dermatology 2024-03-16 2024-03-16 10 3 138 141 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20240686 Extensive extra genital Csillag’s disease: a rare case report <p>Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA), also called as Csillag’s disease, is characterized by small, shiny, porcelain white, sclerotic papules, plaques and atrophic patches that can occur at any site on the skin including the mucosa. Most commonly found in genitalia, rarely occurring on extragenital skin. Predominantly seen in women with bimodal age distribution. Predominantly an interface dermatoses histopathologically consisting of epidermal atrophy, sclerosis /homogenization of collagen fibers and lichenoid inflammatory infiltrates in dermis. No effective treatment till date although topical steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, topical retinoids and systemic agents like hydroxychloroquine, mexthotrexate, PUVA shows varying inconsistent results. Here we report a case of 36-year-old female having LSA with extensive extra vulval involvement including face. No any other co-existing skin disorders. She showed partial improvement use of physical sunscreens, systemic antimalarials, oral methotrexate and antioxidants.</p> Rajesh Rajagopalan Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Research in Dermatology 2024-04-24 2024-04-24 10 3 142 144 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20240972 A rare case of azathioprine induced anagen effluvium and plica neuropathica <p>Anagen effluvium is a type of hair loss that results from a sudden decrease in the metabolic activity of the hair follicle’s matrix cells. The condition is commonly associated with cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation, but can also be caused by other factors. Plica neuropathica, on the other hand, is a condition where hair on the scalp becomes irreversibly matted. It is often linked to psychiatric disturbances, poor hair care, scalp infestations, and the use of ionic surfactants in shampoos. In rare cases, it has also been associated with certain medications. Here we present a rare case of a 16-year-old female who was on azathioprine and was diagnosed with an overlap of both conditions.</p> Manish Rijhwani Meet D. Patel Amrit Malik Manisha Nijhawan Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Research in Dermatology 2024-04-24 2024-04-24 10 3 145 147 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20240973 Navigating the complexities: a case report on the varied presentation of lupus vulgaris <p>A 16-year-old female presented with an asymptomatic lesion in the right axilla, evolving over six months into a scaly, erythematous to brownish-colored plaque with associated axillary lymphadenopathy. Routine investigations revealed mild anemia, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and a positive Mantoux test. Histopathological examination confirmed lupus vulgaris, characterized by tuberculoid granulomas within the superficial dermis. Treatment with anti-tubercular therapy led to significant lesion improvement. Lupus vulgaris, a form of cutaneous tuberculosis, presents varied clinical features and poses diagnostic challenges. Early recognition and prompt treatment are essential to prevent morbidity and scarring. This case highlights the importance of considering lupus vulgaris in differential diagnosis of atypical cutaneous lesions, contributing to better disease management and reduced morbidity.</p> Ashima R. Chandran Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Research in Dermatology 2024-04-24 2024-04-24 10 3 148 150 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20240974 A case report on Kyrle’s disease in patient with diabetes mellitus <p>Kyrles disease classified under acquired perforating dermatosis, is a rare skin condition predominantly affecting 30-50-year-old females. Characterized by pruritic hyperkeratotic and ulcerated nodules, the disease involves the transepidermal clearance of aberrant endogenous components, leading to inflammatory reactions and expulsion of keratin and cellular material. The etiology though not fully understood, suggests changes in dermal connective tissue may play a role. In case report, a 56-year-old male with type II diabetes mellitus presented knee pain and 3 mm papules on lower limbs. Laboratory findings revealed hematological and metabolic abnormalities, and a skin biopsy confirmed Kyrle’s disease features. Laboratory reports indicated abnormalities in hematology, blood glucose, lipid profile, hepatic and renal function. Biopsy results confirmed acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, dysplsia and granulomatous inflammation. The association of Kyrle’s disease and metabolic abnormalities, emphasizing diabetes and chronic renal failure. Potential pathways involve oxidative damage, endoplasmic stress, and vasculopathy. Treatment options include keratolytics, emollients, antihistamines. Kyrle’s disease often linked to diabetes and chronic renal failure, is a chronic condition with variable remission periods. Early detection and appropriate management are crucial for improving patients’ quality of life. Understanding the association with metabolic abnormalities guides effective therapeutic approaches for this rare dermatological condition.</p> Yashmeen Nikhat P. Jutla V. Kumar Chennasamudram C. Kesavulu Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Research in Dermatology 2024-04-24 2024-04-24 10 3 151 153 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20240975 Aleukemic leukemia cutis: a rare case report <p>Leukemia cutis is a rare case disorder characterised by infiltration of neoplastic leukocytes (myeloid or lymphoid) in clinically identifiable cutaneous lesions. It can occur before the onset of hematological presentation of leukemia or during the disease course. The lesions may be highly variable ranging from flesh coloured to violaceous papules, nodules or plaques. A 52-year-old male patient came to the Dermatology Department with multiple asymptomatic erythematous papulonodular lesions involving the face, trunk as well as the extremities from the past 6 months. Systemic examination and counts were normal. On histopathological examination diffuse dense infiltrate of neutrophils and eosinophils throughout the dermis with extension of infiltrate in the interstitium of reticular dermis. Scattered amidst the infiltrate were several large cells with abundant pale cytoplasm and irregular nuclei. Immunohistochemistry was done, radiotherapy was planned and poor prognosis was explained to the patient. The case is being reported due to its rarity and the role of dermatopathologist in early diagnosis.</p> Akshara Kharabanda Sudhir Singh Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Research in Dermatology 2024-04-24 2024-04-24 10 3 154 156 10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20240976