DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20185514

Advanced treatment in basal cell carcinoma of skin

Pankaj Kumar Gupta, Xuefeng Wan, Hari Krishna Kanduri, Kurelli Sai Charan Goud, Paride Abliz, Akebaier Sulaiman

Abstract


In the past ten years, the occurrence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has amplified manifold. There are many treatment procedures to cure BCC, which includes micrographic surgery by means of surgical margins of 3-5mm based on size of tumor, intrusion and location. The normally used method for treatment of basal cell carcinoma is excision by surgery. The most commonly used advanced method of excision in the treatment of bcc is Mohs’ micrographic surgery (MMS). There is no proper guideline, which mentions surgery as the treatment of choice as there are no controlled randomized studies matching surgery with nonsurgical treatment options in BCC. Excision is a competent and meticulous technique as there is a low recurrence of tumor following the histological examination of tumor margins.

 


Keywords


Basal cell carcinoma, Moh’s micrographic surgery, Tumor margins

Full Text:

PDF

References


Marghoob AA. Basal and squamous cell carcinomas. What every primary care physician should know. Postgraduate Med. 1997;102(2):139-42, 146, 152-4 passim.

Rigel DS, Friedman RJ, Kopf AW. Lifetime risk for development of skin cancer in the U.S. population: current estimate is now 1 in 5. Journal of the American Acad Dermatol. 1996;35(6):1012-3.

Holme SA, Malinovszky K, Roberts DL. Changing trends in non-melanoma skin cancer in South Wales, 1988-98. Br J Dermatol. 2000;143(6):1224-9.

Kuijpers DI, Thissen MR, Neumann MH. Basal cell carcinoma: treatment options and prognosis, a scientific approach to a common malignancy. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2002;3(4):247-59.

Bower CP, Lear JT, de Berker DA. Basal cell carcinoma follow-up practices by dermatologists: a national survey. Br J Dermatol. 2001;145(6):949-56.

Julian C, Bowers PW, Pritchard C. A comparative study of the effects of disposable and Volkmann spoon curettes in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. The Br J Dermatol. 2009;161(6):1407-9.

Connolly SM, Baker DR, Coldiron BM, Fazio MJ, Storrs PA, Vidimos AT, et al. AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery. Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al]. 2012;38(10):1582-603.

Miller SJ. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines of care for nonmelanoma skin cancers. Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surg. 2000;26(3):289-92.

Rowe DE, Carroll RJ, Day CL, Jr. Long-term recurrence rates in previously untreated (primary) basal cell carcinoma: implications for patient follow-up. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1989;15(3):315-28.

Barlow JO, Zalla MJ, Kyle A, DiCaudo DJ, Lim KK, Yiannias JA. Treatment of basal cell carcinoma with curettage alone. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;54(6):1039-45.

Thissen MR, Neumann MH, Schouten LJ. A systematic review of treatment modalities for primary basal cell carcinomas. Arch Dermatol. 1999;135(10):1177-83.

Blixt E, Nelsen D, Stratman E. Recurrence rates of aggressive histologic types of basal cell carcinoma after treatment with electrodesiccation and curettage alone. Dermatologic surgery: official publication for Am Society Dermatologic Surg. 2013;39(5):719-25.

Rodriguez-Vigil T, Vazquez-Lopez F, Perez-Oliva N. Recurrence rates of primary basal cell carcinoma in facial risk areas treated with curettage and electrodesiccation. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;56(1):91-5.

Kopf AW, Bart RS, Schrager D, Lazar M, Popkin GL. Curettage-electrodesiccation treatment of basal cell carcinomas. Arch Dermatol. 1977;113(4):439-43.

Connolly SM, Baker DR, Coldiron BM, Fazio MJ, Storrs PA, Vidimos AT, et al. AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;67(4):531-50.

Bennett RG. Current concepts in Mohs micrographic surgery. Dermatologic clinics. 1991;9(4):777-88.

Roenigk RK. Mohs' micrographic surgery. Mayo Clinic proceedings. 1988;63(2):175-83.

Lawrence CM. Mohs' micrographic surgery for basal cell carcinoma. Clinical and experimental dermatology. 1999;24(2):130-3.

Smeets NW, Krekels GA, Ostertag JU, Essers BA, Dirksen CD, Nieman FH, et al. Surgical excision vs Mohs' micrographic surgery for basal-cell carcinoma of the face: randomised controlled trial. Lancet (London, England). 2004;364(9447):1766-72.

Ducic Y, Marra DE, Kennard C. Initial Mohs surgery followed by planned surgical resection of massive cutaneous carcinomas of the head and neck. The Laryngoscope. 2009;119(4):774-7.

Tierney EP, Hanke CW. Cost effectiveness of Mohs micrographic surgery: review of the literature. J Drugs Dermatol: JDD. 2009;8(10):914-22.

Malhotra R, Huilgol SC, Huynh NT, Selva D. The Australian Mohs database, part II: periocular basal cell carcinoma outcome at 5-year follow-up. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(4):631-6.

Basset-Seguin N, Ibbotson SH, Emtestam L, Tarstedt M, Morton C, Maroti M, et al. Topical methyl aminolaevulinate photodynamic therapy versus cryotherapy for superficial basal cell carcinoma: a 5 year randomized trial. European J Dermatol: EJD. 2008;18(5):547-53.

Hall VL, Leppard BJ, McGill J, Kesseler ME, White JE, Goodwin P. Treatment of basal-cell carcinoma: comparison of radiotherapy and cryotherapy. Clin Radiol. 1986;37(1):33-4.

Kuflik EG. Cryosurgery for skin cancer: 30-year experience and cure rates. Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surg [et al]. 2004;30(2):297-300.

Wang I, Bendsoe N, Klinteberg CA, Enejder AM, Andersson-Engels S, Svanberg S, et al. Photodynamic therapy vs. cryosurgery of basal cell carcinomas: results of a phase III clinical trial. The Br J Dermatol. 2001;144(4):832-40.

Dolmans DE, Fukumura D, Jain RK. Photodynamic therapy for cancer. Nature Rev Cancer. 2003;3(5):380-7.

Mroz P, Yaroslavsky A, Kharkwal GB, Hamblin MR. Cell death pathways in photodynamic therapy of cancer. Cancers. 2011;3(2):2516-39.

Angell-Petersen E, Sorensen R, Warloe T, Soler AM, Moan J, Peng Q, et al. Porphyrin formation in actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma after topical application of methyl 5-aminolevulinate. The J Investigative Dermatol. 2006;126(2):265-71.

Matei C, Tampa M, Poteca T, Panea-Paunica G, Georgescu SR, Ion RM, et al. Photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. J Med Life. 2013;6(1):50-4.

Gerritsen MJ, Smits T, Kleinpenning MM, van de Kerkhof PC, van Erp PE. Pretreatment to enhance protoporphyrin IX accumulation in photodynamic therapy. Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland). 2009;218(3):193-202.

Di Venosa G, Hermida L, Batlle A, Fukuda H, Defain MV, Mamone L, et al. Characterisation of liposomes containing aminolevulinic acid and derived esters. J Photochem Photobiol Biol. 2008;92(1):1-9.

Kuijpers DI, Thissen MR, Thissen CA, Neumann MH. Similar effectiveness of methyl aminolevulinate and 5-aminolevulinate in topical photodynamic therapy for nodular basal cell carcinoma. J Drugs Dermatol. 2006;5(7):642-5.

Rollakanti K, Anand S, Maytin EV. Topical calcitriol prior to photodynamic therapy enhances treatment efficacy in non-melanoma skin cancer mouse models. Proceedings of SPIE--the International Society for Optical Engineering. 2015;9308:93080.

Jalian HR, Avram MM, Stankiewicz KJ, Shofner JD, Tannous Z. Combined 585 nm pulsed-dye and 1,064 nm Nd:YAG lasers for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. Lasers in Surg Med. 2014;46(1):1-7.

Shah SM, Konnikov N, Duncan LM, Tannous ZS. The effect of 595 nm pulsed dye laser on superficial and nodular basal cell carcinomas. Lasers Surg Med. 2009;41(6):417-22.

Campolmi P, Mavilia L, Bonan P, Cannarozzo G, Lotti TM. 595 nm pulsed dye laser for the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma. Lasers Med Sci. 2005;20(3-4):147-8.

Minars N, Blyumin-Karasik M. Treatment of Basal cell carcinomas with pulsed dye laser: a case series. J Skin Cancer. 2012;2012:286480.

Karia PS, Han J, Schmults CD. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: estimated incidence of disease, nodal metastasis, and deaths from disease in the United States, 2012. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013;68(6):957-66.

Christenson LJ, Borrowman TA, Vachon CM, Tollefson MM, Otley CC, Weaver AL, et al. Incidence of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas in a population younger than 40 years. JAMA. 2005;294(6):681-90.

Omi T, Numano K. The Role of the CO2 Laser and Fractional CO2 Laser in Dermatology. Laser Therap. 2014;23(1):49-60.

Humphreys TR, Malhotra R, Scharf MJ, Marcus SM, Starkus L, Calegari K. Treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in situ with a high-energy pulsed carbon dioxide laser. Arch Dermatol. 1998;134(10):1247-52.

Campolmi P, Brazzini B, Urso C, Ghersetich I, Mavilia L, Hercogova J, et al. Superpulsed CO2 laser treatment of basal cell carcinoma with intraoperatory histopathologic and cytologic examination. Dermatologic surgery: official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al]. 2002;28(10):909-11.

von Domarus H, Stevens PJ. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma. Report of five cases and review of 170 cases in the literature. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1984;10(6):1043-60.

Sekulic A, Migden MR, Oro AE, Dirix L, Lewis KD, Hainsworth JD, et al. Efficacy and safety of vismodegib in advanced basal-cell carcinoma. The New England J Med. 2012;366(23):2171-9.

Chang AL, Solomon JA, Hainsworth JD, Goldberg L, McKenna E, Day BM, et al. Expanded access study of patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma treated with the Hedgehog pathway inhibitor, vismodegib. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014;70(1):60-9.

Tang JY, Mackay-Wiggan JM, Aszterbaum M, Yauch RL, Lindgren J, Chang K, et al. Inhibiting the hedgehog pathway in patients with the basal-cell nevus syndrome. The New England J Med. 2012;366(23):2180-8.

Skvara H, Kalthoff F, Meingassner JG, Wolff-Winiski B, Aschauer H, Kelleher JF, et al. Topical treatment of Basal cell carcinomas in nevoid Basal cell carcinoma syndrome with a smoothened inhibitor. J Investigative Dermatol. 2011;131(8):1735-44.

Tang T, Tang JY, Li D, Reich M, Callahan CA, Fu L, et al. Targeting superficial or nodular Basal cell carcinoma with topically formulated small molecule inhibitor of smoothened. Clinical cancer research: an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Res. 2011;17(10):3378-87.