DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/issn.2455-4529.IntJResDermatol20185129

A clinico-epidemiological study of HIV seroconcordant and serodiscordant couples

K. Radha Raja Prabha, A. Sathish Selvakumar

Abstract


Background: The aim of the present study was to assess the epidemiological and risk factors that are likely to influence HIV transmission among married couples and to study the pattern of sexually transmitted infections among both concordant and discordant HIV infected couples..

Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 100 HIV patients and their married partners attending to Institute of Venereology, Madras Medical College, Tamil Nadu. Detailed history of their high risk sexual behaviour, previous veneral diseases (PVDs) was noted and physical and genital examination was done. All the partners of HIV cases were examined for HIV to know the serostatus (seroconcordant and serodiscordant).

Results: Among the 100 married couples, 65 couples were seroconcordant for HIV and 35 couples were serodiscordant. Of them, 94 males and 71 females were positive for HIV. History of PVDs was found in 34 patients (28 were seroconcordants and 6 were serodiscordants). The most common STD in the males noticed was ano-genital warts (n=11) and genital ulceration (n=11) is associated with maximum seroconcordance rates. Whereas in the females it was bacterial vaginosis (n=11).

Conclusions: The findings suggest that risk factors such as STDs, PVDs in males, anal intercourse, sexual contact during menstruation, avoidance of condom during sexual act and lack of circumcision was significantly associated with presence of HIV concordance in the study population. Duration and frequency of sexual contact with partner, previous venereal diseases in females and ART were found not to influence the transmission of HIV.


Keywords


HIV, Seroconcordant, Serodiscordant, Risk factors

Full Text:

PDF

References


UNAIDS, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, WHO Factsheet. Available at: http://www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassets/dataimport/pub/factsheet/2009/20091124_fs_asia_en.pdf. Accessed on 29th September 2011.

UNAIDS (2010) 'UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic. Available at: http://www.unaids. org/globalreport/Global_report.htm. Accessed on 6th October 2011.

Marfatia YS, Shinojia MA, Patel D, Pandya I. A profile of human immunodeficiency virus seroconcordant/ serodiscordant couples. Indian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS. 2015;36(1):64-6.

Archana S, Marfatia YS. An epidemiological study of HIV seroconcordant Vs. serodiscordant couples (a femal based study). Indian J Sex Transm Dis. 2005;26(1):1-6.

Mir MA, Sofi FA, Ahmad SN, Dar MR. Clinical and demographic profile of HIV/AIDS patients diagnosed at a tertiary care centre in Kashmir. J Pak Med Assoc. 2010;60(6):428-31.

Yadav SB, Makwana NR, Vadera BN, Dhaduk KM, Gandha KM. Awareness of HIV/AIDS among rural youth in India: a community based cross-sectional study. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2011;5(10):711-6.

Dunkle KL, Jewkes RK, Brown HC, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Harlow SD. Transactional sex among women in Soweto, South Africa: Prevalence, risk factors and association with HIV infection. Soc Sci Med. 2004;59:1581–92.

Thakur A, Toppo M, Lodha R. A study on sexual risk behaviors of long-distance truck drivers in central India. Int J Res Med Sci. 2015;3(7):1769-74.

Kumarasamy N, Venkatesh KK, Srikrishnan AK, Prasad L, Balakrishnan P, Thamburaj E. Risk factors for HIV transmission among heterosexual discordant couples in South India. HIV Med. 2010;11:178–86.

Carpenter L, Kamali A, Ruberantwari A, Malamba SS, Whitworth JA. Rates of HIV‐1 transmission within marriage in rural Uganda in relation to the HIV sero‐status of the partners. AIDS. 1999;13:1083–9.

Shiferaw Y, Alemu A, Girma A, Getahun A, Kassa A, Gashaw A, et al. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and risk behaviors towards HIV/AIDS and other sexual transmitted infection among preparatory students of Gondar town, north west Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes. 2011 Nov 21;4:505.

Comparison of female to male and male to female transmission of HIV in 563 stable couples. European Study Group on Heterosexual Transmission of HIV. BMJ. 1992;304(6830):809–13.

Thomas R, Burger R, Harper A, Kanema S, Mwenge L, Vanqa N, et al. Differences in health-related quality of life between HIV-positive and HIV-negative people in Zambia and South Africa: a cross-sectional baseline survey of the HPTN 071 (PopART) trial. Lancet Glob Health. 2017;5(11):1133-41.

Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, Gamble T, Hosseinipour MC, Kumarasamy N, et al. Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:493–505.

Ruzagira E, Wandiembe S, Abaasa A, Bwanika AN, Bahemuka U, et al. HIV incidence and risk factors for acquisition in HIV discordant couples in Masaka, Uganda: an HIV vaccine preparedness study. PLoS One. 2011;6:e24037.

Kalichman SC, Pinkerton SD, Carey MP, Cain D, Mehlomakulu V, Carey KB, et al. Heterosexual anal intercourse and HIV infection risks in the context of alcohol serving venues, Cape Town, South Africa. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:807.

Kalichman SC, Simbayi LC. Sexual exposure to blood and increased risks for heterosexual HIV transmission in Cape Town, South Africa. Afr J Reprod Health. 2004;8(2):55-8.

Anderson D, Politch JA, Pudney J. HIV infection and immune defense of the penis. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2011;65(3):220-9.

Proposed 'World Health Organization staging system for HIV infection and disease': preliminary testing by an international collaborative cross-sectional study. The WHO International Collaborating Group for the Study of the WHO Staging System. AIDS. 1993;7:711-8.

Ward H, Rönn M. Contribution of sexually transmitted infections to the sexual transmission of HIV. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2010;5(4):305-10.