Haematological profile of human immunodeficiency virus infected patients
Keywords:Human immunodeficiency virus, Hematological profile, Anemia, Leukopenia, Thrombocytopenia, Pancytopenia
Background: In India, approximately 6 million populations are affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Anemia and leukopenia, especially thrombocytopenia is seen commonly in HIV infections. Low CD4+ count and increased viral load are some of the factors associated with increased risk of thrombocytopenia. The aim of the study was to study the hematological changes that occur in HIV infected patients who attend the Institute of Venereology, before starting HAART.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Institute of Venereology, Madras Medical College/Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital, Chennai in 100 treatment-naive HIV infected patients. Detailed history and clinical examination was done. Blood samples were collected. Complete blood count, CD4 count, prothrombin time, activated plasma thromboplastin time, peripheral smear etc., were done. Results were collected and analysed.
Results: Out of 100 patients, 56% were males and 43% females and one transgender. Anaemia was detected in 72%patients. 73.5% males and 76.2% females with CD4 count <350/μl were anemic. The commonest anaemia was normochromic normocytic, seen in 65% patients. 7 male and 7 female patients had leukopenia. 81.25%patients with lymphocytopenia had CD4 count <350/μl. 12% males and 4% females had neutropenia. 17% had neutrophilia. Patients in WHO stage I did not have neutropenia. 23% patients had thrombocytopenia. 47% patients with thrombocytopenia were in stage IV. Maximum number of patients with normal platelet count was in stage I.
Conclusions: Haematological abnormalities are a common occurrence during the course of HIV infection. Identifying and treating the haematological changes have great impact on both the morbidity and mortality of HIV infected patients.
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