Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of alopecia areata: an observational study from South India
Keywords:Alopecia areata, Atopy, Vitiligo, Anagen
Background: Paucity of literature on epidemiological studies of alopecia areata (AA) from Indian subcontinent especially from southern India. The objectives of the study were to study the epidemiological and clinical profile of alopecia areata in a population from northern part of South India.
Methods: The epidemiology including pattern, risk factors and associations were evaluated in all newly diagnosed alopecia areata cases seen from January 2017 to December 2017 in a tertiary hospital in South India.
Results: The incidence of AA was 2% of total dermatology outpatients. 60 new case referrals of AA were seen from January 2017 to December 2017. Male to female ratio was almost equal. Maximum number of patients with AA belonged to the age group of 21-40 years (50%). Occiput was the commonest site involved in AA (36.8%) followed by vertex (27.6%). 30% of the patients gave a past history of AA and 21.7% gave a family history of AA. 15% of AA patients had history of atopy. Nail changes were found in 30% of patients. 5% of AA patients had associated vitiligo. On microscopic examination of plucked hair early dystrophic anagen hair predominated (70%) as against (16.7%) of dystrophic telogen hair.
Conclusions: The clinical characteristics of alopecia areata throws light from a data sparse geographical region but warrants further detailed studies for improved understanding.
Safavi KH, Muller SA, Suman VJ, Moshell AN, Melton LJ, 3rd. Incidence of alopecia areata in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1975 through 1989. Mayo Clin P. 1995;70:628-33.
Greenberg SI. Alopecia areata. A psychiatric study. Arch Dermatol. 1955;72:454-7.
Goh C, Finkel M, Christos PJ, Sinha AA. Profile of 513 patients with alopecia areata: associations of disease subtypes with atopy, autoimmune disease and positive family history. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2006;20:1055-60.
Sharma VK, Dawn Kumar. Profile of alopecia areata in northern India. Int J Dermatol. 1996;35:22-7.
Tan E, Tay YK, Goh CL, Chin Giam Y. The pattern and profile of alopecia areata in Singapore-a study of 219 Asians. Int J Dermatol. 2002;41:748-53.
Rook A, Dawber R. Diseases of the hair and scalp. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific; 1982: 271-306.
Anderson I. Alopecia areata: A clinical study. Br Med J. 1950;2:1250-52.
Muller SA, Winkelmann RK. Alopecia areata: an evaluation of 736 patients. Arch Dermatol. 1963;88:290-7.
Rook AJ. Common baldness and alopecia areata. In: Rook AJ, recent advances in dermatology. Einburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1977;4:223-47.
Jain S, Marfatia YS. Alopecia areata –pattern in industrial city of Baroda. Ind J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2003;69:81-2.
Van der Steen P, Boezmann J, Duller P, Happle R. Can alopecia areata be triggered by emotional stress? An uncontrolled evaluation of 178 patients with extensive hair loss. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh). 1992;72:279-80.
Madani S, Shapiro J. Alopecia areata update. J Am Acad Deramtol. 2000;42:549-66.
De Waard-Van Der Spek FB, Oranje AP, De Raeymaecke DMJ, Wynia RP. Juvenile versus maturity onset alopecia areata - a comparative retrospective clinical study. Clin Exp Dermatol 1989;14:42.
Snellow WVR, Edwards JE, Koo JYM. Profile of alopecia areata: a questionnaire analysis of patient and family. Int J Dermatol. 1992;31:186-9.
Sharma VK, Kumar B, Dawn G.A clinical study of childhood alopecia areata in Chandigarh. Indian Pediatr Dermatol. 1996;13:372-7.
Penders AJM. Alopecia areata and atopy. Dermatologica. 1968;136:395-9.
Young E, Bruns HM, Berrens L. Alopecia areata and atopy. Dermatologica. 1978;156:306-8.
Wang SJ, Shobat T, Vadheim C. Increased risk for type 1 (Insulin dependent) diabetes in relatives of patients with alopecia areata. Am J Med Genet. 1994;51:234-5.
Cunliffe WJ, Hall R, Stevenson CJ, Weightman D. Alopecia areata thyroid disease and auto immunity. Br J Dermatol. 1969;81:877-81.
Allison IR, Cunis AC: Vitiligo and pernicious anemia. Arch Dermatol. 1995;72:407-9.
Friedmann PS. Alopecia areata and autoimmunity. Br J Dermatol. 1981;105:153-7.
Carter DM, Jegasothy BV. Alopecia areata and Down syndrome. Arch Dermatol. 1976;112:1397-9.
Caserio RJ. Treatment of alopecia areata with squaric acid dibutylester. Arch Dermatol. 1987;123:1036-41.
Shapiro J. Alopecia areata update. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;42:549-66.
Tosti A, Fanti PA, Morelli R. Trachonychia associated with alopecia areata. A clinical and pathological study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991;25:266-70.
Tosti A, Morelli R, Bardazzi F. Prevalence of nail abnormalities in children with alopecia areata Pediatr Dermatol. 1994;11:112-5.
Gandhi V, Baruah MC, Bhattacharya SN. Nail changes in alopecia areata. Incidence and pattern Ind J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2003;69:114-5.
Eckert J, Church RE, Ebling FJ. The pathogenesis of alopecia areata. Br J Dermatol. 1968;80:205-10.