A study of cutaneous manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus in Malwa region of India
Keywords:Lupus, Skin, Photosensivity
Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease. SLE is the most common connective tissue disease. Its prevalence varies according to geographical and racial background from 3/10 000 in Caucasians to 20/10 000 in Afro-Caribbeans. Around 90% of affected individuals are women, and the peak age at onset is between 20 and 30 years. Limited studies are available in India which have documented the frequency of cutaneous manifestations of SLE, so, this study was planned to evaluate the frequency of skin manifestations of SLE, in a tertiary care centre of Malwa region of India.
Methods: All demographic data including age, sex, weight was collected on a pre-designed proforma. All the patients were evaluated for cutaneous manifestations of SLE i.e. malar rash, discoid rash, oral ulcers, photosensitivity etc. All the information was recorded in designed proforma.
Results: Among 100 SLE subjects, 82 (82%) patients had skin manifestations, 18 (18%) patients had oral ulcer and 12 (12%) patients had raynaud’s phenomenon at the time of presentation. Among dermatological manifestations, 42% patients had photosensivity, 35% patients had malar rash, 30% patients had discoid rash, 10% patients had alopecia and 2% patients had bullous lesion.
Conclusions: Skin lesions in patients with lupus may be specific or nonspecific. This study covers the SLE-specific cutaneous changes: malar rash, discoid rash, photosensitivity, and oral mucosal lesions as well as SLE nonspecific skin manifestations. A deeper thorough understanding of the cutaneous manifestations of SLE is essential for diagnosis, prognosis, and efficient management. Thus, dermatologists should be involved with other specialties to provide optimal care of SLE patient.
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