An observational study of cutaneous adverse drug reactions in tertiary hospital
Keywords:Adverse drug reactions, Pattern of ADR, Offending drugs, Fixed drug eruptions, NSAIDS
Background: Adverse cutaneous drug reactions include reactions due to overdose, side effects and idiosyncratic reactions. They pose a diagnostic challenge due to wide variety of causative agents and varied clinical manifestations. Our study aims to record various clinical patterns of adverse drug reactions, their offending drugs and to study the pattern of morbidity and mortality in patients with severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions especially in the HIV era.
Methods: 90 patients with adverse cutaneous drug reactions were included who came to Dept. of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy at P.D.U. Govt. Medical College and Hospital, Rajkot, Gujarat from October 2011 to November 2017. Thorough history with all routine haematological and biochemical investigations and septic screening was done. The morphology of skin lesions was noted. The offending drug was withdrawn in the patients and appropriate treatment was given.
Results: The most common age group observed was 31-40 years (24.44%) with male to female ratio being 1.2:1. Maculopapular rash was the most common clinical type (16.66%). NSAIDS were the most common offending drugs (16.66%). Among the individual drugs, carbamazepine was the most common offending drug(14.44%). Drug was prescribed by a medical practitioner in 86 cases (95.55%), while self administered in 4 cases (4.44%). History of some cutaneous drug reaction in the past was present in 17 patients (18.88%). Lesions were generalised in 76 cases (84.44%) and localised in 14 cases (15.55%).
Conclusions: Knowledge of the pattern and the offending drug helps in better management and reduced complications in these patients and also helps in preventing recurrences.
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