A study of clinicopathologic spectrum of vesicobullous disorders
Keywords:Autoimmune blistering diseases, Pemphigus vulgaris, Direct immunofluorescence
Background: Blistering diseases are alarming skin conditions. Autoimmune blistering diseases are a group of bullous disorders characterized by pathogenic antibodies directed at the target antigens in the epidermis or dermoepidermal junction.The objectives were to study the spectrum of histopathological changes by light microscopy, to evaluate the pattern of direct immunofluorescence (DIF) and to correlate clinical, histopathological features and DIF findings of vesiculobullous lesions of the skin or/and mucosa.
Methods: The present study was carried out on 110 skin and/or mucosal biopsies with vesicobullous disorders from July 2013 to June 2016. Detailed clinical history, morphology of lesions, site of involvement and other findings were recorded as per proforma. These cases were analysed clinically, histopathologically and on immunofluorescence.
Results: Majority of the patients presented in the age group of 41-50 years (30.9%). The male: female ratio was 1:1.15. Pemphigus vulgaris was the most common vesiculobullous disorder constituting 48.2%, followed by Bullous Pemphigoid constituting 27.3%. Dermatitis herpetiformis constituted 8.3%; Pemphigus foliaceous 3.6%, varicella and Stevens Johnson Syndrome both were observed in 2.7% each. DIF was performed in 81 cases out of which only 72 cases (92.6%) showed positivity.
Conclusions: DIF is a sensitive tool for distinguishing immune mediated bullous diseases from other vesiculobullous disorders especially in cases which pose a diagnostic dilemma both clinically and histologically. The final diagnosis depends on correlation of clinical, histopathological and immunoflourescence findings.
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