Clinical study of neonatal skin lesions


  • Parag V. Patel Department of Dermatology, A. J. Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka
  • Vinma H. Shetty Department of Dermatology, A. J. Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka
  • Narendra J. Shetty Department of Dermatology, A. J. Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka
  • Varsha . Department of Paediatrics, A. J. Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka



Neonate, Physiological, Acquired, Congenital


Background: A thorough knowledge of the skin changes, physiological as well as acquired, in neonates is of prime importance for the dermatologist as well as paediatrician.

Methods: A total of 430 randomly selected live-born neonates delivered and admitted to the postpartum ward or to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and neonates attending the Dermatology Outpatient Department of a tertiary care institute were included in this study after taking written informed consent. A detailed assessment of history was performed and a detailed dermatological examination of each neonate was carried out. Laboratory procedures were performed to confirm diagnosis if required. Data was analyzed using SPSS ver. 20.

Results: Most common physiological skin change observed was Mongolian spot (65.35%) followed by Erythema Toxicum Neonatorum (51.63%), Epstein’s pearls (46.97%) and Sebaceous gland hyperplasia (45.81%). Lanugo hair was seen in 16.74% neonates. Among congenital skin lesions, Salmon patch was seen in 15.58% of the neonates whereas congenital melanocytic nevi are seen in 4.19% of the neonates. Diaper dermatitis was the most common acquired skin manifestation seen in 5.81% of cases.

Conclusions: Neonates are prone to suffer from a wide range of dermatological problems, physiological as well as pathological. These manifestations are unique to the neonates. A detailed history and awareness of the clinical presentation facilitates the confirmation of the diagnosis.


Jain N, Rathore BS, Krishna A. Dermatoses in Indian neonates: A clinical study. Egypt J Dermatol Venerol. 2014;34:86-92.

Nobby B, Chakrabrty N. Cutaneous manifestations in the new born. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 1992;58:69-72.

Sachdeva M, Kaur S, Nagpal M, Dewan SP. Cutaneous lesions in new born. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2002;68:334-7.

Parikh DA. Neonatal skin disorders. In: Valia RG, Valia AR, editors. IADVL textbook of dermatology. 3rd ed. Mumbai: Bhalani Publishing House. 2001;1:160–70.

Kulkarni ML, Singh R. Normal variants of skin in neonates. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 1996;62:83-6.

Ahsan U, Zaman T, Rashid T, Jahangir M. Cutaneous manifestations in 1000 Pakistani newborns. J Pak Assoc Dermatol. 2010;20:199-205.

Serdaroğlu S, Çakıl B. Physiologic Skin Findings of Newborn. J Turk Acad Dermatol. 2008;2(4):82401r.

Pruksachatkunakom, C, Duarte AM, Schachner LA. Skin lesions in newborns. Int Pediatr. 1999;14(1):28-31.

Al-Dahiyat KA. Neonatal skin lesions in Jordan, study of consecutive 500 neonates at King Hussein medical center. Calicut Med J. 2006;4(4):e1.

Nanda S, Reddy BSN, Ramji S, Pandhi D. Analytical Study of Pustular Eruptions in Neonates. Pediatr Dermatol. 2002;19:210–5.

Dash K, Grover S, Radhakrishnan S, Vani M. Clinico epidemiological study of cutaneous manifestations in the neonate. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2000;66:26-8.

Hidano A, Purwoko R, Jitsukawa T. Statistical survey of skin changes in Japanese neonates. Pediatr Dermatol. 1986;3:140–4.

Ferahbas A, Utas S, Akcakus M, Gunes T, Mistik S. Prevalence of cutaneous findings in hospitalized neonates: a prospective observational study. Pediatr Dermatol. 2009;26(2):139–42.

Shih IH, Lin JY, Chen CH, Hong HS. A birthmark survey in 500 newborns: clinical observation in two northern Taiwan medical center nurseries. Chang Gung Med J. 2007;30(3):220-5.

Nanda A, Kaur S, Bhakoo ON, Dhall K. Survey of cutaneous lesions in Indian newborns. Pediatr Dermatol. 1989;6(1):39–42.

Atherton DJ, Rook A. The neonate. In: Burns T, Breathnach S, Cox N, Griffiths C, editors. Textbook of Dermatology. 7th edition. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK; 2004: 14.1–14.50.

Agarwal G, Kumar V, Ahmad S, Goel K, Goel P, Prakash A, et al. A Study on Neonatal Dermatosis in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Western Uttar Pradesh India. J Community Med Health Educ. 2012;2:169.

Zagne V, Fernandes NC. Dermatoses in the first 72 h of life: A clinical and statistical survey. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2011;77:470-6.

Kaur J, Sharma N. Incidence of Physiological And Pathological Skin Changes In The Newborn. Int J Dermatol. 2012;9(1):1-3.

Jain N, Rathore BS, Agarwal AK, Bhardwaj A. Cutaneous lesions in neonates admitted in a tertiary setup neonatal intensive care unit. Indian J Paediatr Dermatol. 2013;14:62-6.

Dohil MA, Baugh WP, Eichenfield LF. Vascular and pigmented birthmarks. Pediatric Clin North Am. 2000;47(4):783–812.

Sharma YK, Sadana DJ, Rizvi A, Dash K. A comprehensive classification and abbreviated update of neonatal dermatological entities. Indian J Paediatr Dermatol. 2015;16:122-35.






Original Research Articles