Clinical study of neonatal skin lesions
Keywords:Neonate, Physiological, Acquired, Congenital
Background: A thorough knowledge of the skin changes, physiological as well as acquired, in neonates is of prime importance for the dermatologist as well as paediatrician.
Methods: A total of 430 randomly selected live-born neonates delivered and admitted to the postpartum ward or to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and neonates attending the Dermatology Outpatient Department of a tertiary care institute were included in this study after taking written informed consent. A detailed assessment of history was performed and a detailed dermatological examination of each neonate was carried out. Laboratory procedures were performed to confirm diagnosis if required. Data was analyzed using SPSS ver. 20.
Results: Most common physiological skin change observed was Mongolian spot (65.35%) followed by Erythema Toxicum Neonatorum (51.63%), Epstein’s pearls (46.97%) and Sebaceous gland hyperplasia (45.81%). Lanugo hair was seen in 16.74% neonates. Among congenital skin lesions, Salmon patch was seen in 15.58% of the neonates whereas congenital melanocytic nevi are seen in 4.19% of the neonates. Diaper dermatitis was the most common acquired skin manifestation seen in 5.81% of cases.
Conclusions: Neonates are prone to suffer from a wide range of dermatological problems, physiological as well as pathological. These manifestations are unique to the neonates. A detailed history and awareness of the clinical presentation facilitates the confirmation of the diagnosis.
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