Published: 2021-02-22

Cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 in pediatric patients: literature review

Ghadah Alhetheli


Cutaneous manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are neglected during the early period of the spread of the pandemic. Moreover, the rational that children are immune against COVID-19 infections, allowed unnoticeable spread of the disease among children and adolescents. This review article aimed to shed light on the different cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 among pediatric age group, its related pathogenesis and histopathological features. Review of literature published since the release of the details about the disease was conducted to examine various cutaneous manifestations related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Review of 35 articles concerned with COVID19-related skin manifestations in pediatrics showed that it was varied and included chilblain-like, maculopapular, urticarial, vesicular, targetoid, erythema multiforme-like and COVID-19 Kawasaki disease-like multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), which is serious health condition. Despite of the previously documented higher production of interferon-α in children and adolescents, children are not immune against SARS-CoV-19 infection. Cutaneous manifestations in children are usually asymptomatic and are curable unless they are drug-related side effects during the course of treatment of COVID-19. This literature review and photo atlas provide a mini-analysis of COVID-19-related skin manifestations among pediatrics with reference to their tissue histopathological changes.


Coronavirus disease 2019, Children, Cutaneous manifestations, Histological findings, Pediatrics, COVID-19, Rash, Exanthem

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