Leprosy reactions: a prospective study at tertiary care hospital of South Gujarat
Keywords:Leprosy, Reactions, Clinical, Parameters, Histopathology
Background: Clinical diagnosis of early leprosy lesions is important as it is one of the leading causes of physical disabilities which cause social stigma leading to discrimination & isolation. Its diagnosis is based upon detailed cutaneous examination along with peripheral nerves. The objectives were to study associations between reaction types with type of leprosy and various deformities and disabilities relating to treatment for leprosy.
Methods: This is a hospital-based prospective, cross-sectional observational study. 110 clinically diagnosed Leprosy patients with reactions visiting Dermatology OPD were analysed after obtaining informed consent. Participants’ data were collected for demographic criteria, clinical history, past medical history and family history. Clinical examination of a study participant was performed. Collected data was entered in Microsoft excel worksheet and analysed for frequency distribution.
Results: All subjects were in a mean age of 38.03±14.37 years.13.64% patients had positive family history of leprosy. 59 (53.64%) and 51 (46.36%) cases were of type 1 and type 2 reactions, respectively. Out of 59 patients with type 1 reaction, the most common presenting symptom was inflammation of pre-existing lesion observed in 35 (59.32%) cases while the most common presenting symptom of type 2 reactions was erythema nodosum leprosum seen in 34 (66.67%) cases. Type 1 reaction presented histopathologically as upgrading (67.80%) and downgrading reactions (5.08%). Histopathological finding in type 2 reaction were neutrophillic infiltration with macrophage granuloma seen in 54.90% cases.
Conclusion: It is important to identify reactions associated with leprosy and its treatment as they can significantly alter the morbidity of an affected individual.
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