Advances in biological treatment of melanoma

Qazi Syed Irfanullah Shah, Xuefeng Wan, Akebaier Sulaiman, Paride Abliz, Yasir Ali Butt, Lu Jin


Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Metastatic disease have a grave prognosis in comparison to early stage metastatic cancer where surgical treatment can benefit the patients thus traditional chemotherapy regimens have been found to offer relatively little survival benefit. Treatment of advanced or metastatic melanoma includes involvement of biological modalities such as immunotherapeutic approaches, targeted therapies and epigenetic modification therapies. The goal of immunotherapy for cancer is to provide an effective anticancer immune response. These biological therapies restore or increase the activities of specific immune-system components and counteract immunosuppressive signals produced by cancer cells. Monoclonal antibodies, are laboratory-produced antibodies that bind to specific antigens expressed by cells, such as a protein that is present on the surface of cancer cells but is absent from normal cells. They interfere with the action of proteins that are necessary for tumor growth. When bound to bevacizumab, VEGF cannot interact with its cellular receptor, preventing the signaling that leads to the growth of new blood vessels. MAb’s that bind to cell surface growth factor receptors prevent the targeted receptors from sending their normal growth-promoting signals. The targeted therapeutic agents modulate specific pro-oncogenic mutations such as v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF), MEK inhibitors and CDK4/CDK6, PTEN and GNAQ/GNA11 genes. This review summarizes the biological agents and newer modalities of treatments, and their recent advancements and contributions in the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma.


Biological therapy, Metastatic melanoma, Targeted therapeutic agents

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